Energy Resources Program
Thursday, July 16, 2015
USGS Publication: Open-File Report 2015-1117
The quantities of water and hydraulic fracturing proppant required for producing petroleum (oil, gas, and natural gas liquids) from continuous accumulations, and the quantities of water extracted during petroleum production, can be quantitatively assessed using a probabilistic approach.
Tuesday, June 30, 2015
Press Release & Publication
The amount of water required to hydraulically fracture oil and gas wells varies widely across the country, according to the first national-scale analysis and map of hydraulic fracturing water usage detailed in a new USGS study accepted for publication in Water Resources Research, a journal of the American Geophysical Union.
Monday, May 11, 2015
Outside Publication: Applied Geochemistry
Hydraulically fractured shales are becoming an increasingly important source of natural gas production in the United States. This process has been known to create up to 420 gallons of produced water (PW) per day, but the volume varies depending on the formation, and the characteristics of individual hydraulic fracture...
Friday, April 10, 2015
USGS Publication: Circular 1407
Water availability and use are closely connected with energy development and use. Water cannot be delivered to homes, businesses, and industries without energy, and most forms of energy development require large amounts of water. The United States faces two significant and sometimes competing challenges...
Tuesday, January 20, 2015
Outside Publication: AAPG Bulletin
The number of Marcellus Shale gas wells drilled in the Appalachian basin has increased rapidly over the past decade, leading to increased interest in the highly saline water produced with the natural gas which must be recycled, treated, or injected into deep disposal wells. New geochemical and isotopic analyses of produced water for 3 time-series and 13 grab samples from Marcellus Shale...
Tuesday, January 13, 2015
USGS Publication: Data Series 868
Comprehensive, published, and publicly available data regarding the extent, location, and character of hydraulic fracturing in the United States are scarce. The objective of this data series is to publish data related to hydraulic fracturing in the public domain. The spreadsheets released with this data series contain derivative datasets aggregated temporally and spatially from the commercial and proprietary IHS database of U.S. oil and gas production and well data (IHS Energy, 2011)...
USGS Publication: Scientific Investigations Report 2014-5131
Hydraulic fracturing is presently the primary stimulation technique for oil and gas production in low-permeability, unconventional reservoirs. Comprehensive, published, and publicly available information regarding the extent, location, and character of hydraulic fracturing in the United States is scarce...
Wednesday, November 12, 2014
USGS Publication: Fact Sheet 2014-3104
Significant quantities of water are present in hydrocarbon reservoirs. When brought to the land surface during oil, gas, and coalbed methane production, the water—either naturally occurring or injected as a method to enhance production—is termed produced water. Produced water is currently managed through processes such as recycling, treatment and discharge, spreading on roads, evaporation or infiltration, and deep well injection.
Monday, October 20, 2014
The USGS has updated the National Produced Waters Geochemical Database and Map Viewer to include trace elements, isotopes, and time-series data, as well as nearly 100,000 new samples with greater spatial coverage and from both conventional and unconventional well types.
Significant quantities of water are produced in the extraction of hydrocarbon energy resources (currently estimated at ~14 billion bbl/yr across the United States [1 bbl=42 gallons]). An additional volume of hydraulic fracturing (“fracing”) fluid, used to increase permeability, porosity, and hydrocarbon yield of reservoir rocks, is recovered at the end of the process (flowback fluids). Water is also generated from scrubbers in power plants, dewatering and extracting uranium resources, carbon sequestration, and development of unconventional energy sources. Although derived from a variety of different sources, these all represent sources of produced waters in that they are extracted in the process of trying to develop, extract, or dispose of energy-related products.
Produced waters typically exhibit significant variations in salinity, sodicity, trace element composition, and organic geochemistry resulting from differences in environmental and geologic conditions. Some of these waters contain relatively high salinity values, sometimes greater than seawater, while others are potable. However, continued concerns over diminishing water resources and expanding needs for next generation energy sources have lead to the characterization of produced waters as possible resources.
Researchers in the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Energy Resources Program (ERP) and colleagues are actively engaged in examining several aspects related to characterization, use, and impact of produced waters. Currently research is focused in three areas:
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Coalbed methane (CBM), also called coalbed natural gas, currently contributes ~10% to U.S. natural gas production, but generates more water than traditional gas sources. CBM is generated by de-watering coal, and thus reducing pressure within the coal bed, allowing adsorbed volatile compounds, such as methane, to be transported out of the subsurface... [+]
and captured (fig. 1).
Water generated from CBM production is typically re-injected into a different unit, treated, beneficially used and/or directly discharged into ponds or surface waters. The USGS and colleagues are involved in examining environmental impacts from several different disposal/beneficial use strategies for CBM Produced Waters.
One area of focus is the Powder River Basin (PRB) in Wyoming and Montana, the second largest producer of CBM in the United States. Coalbed methane activities within the Wyoming portion of the basin currently generate 570-680 million bbls of water per year (1bbl = 42 gallons), little of which is reinjected into the subsurface. The CBM produced waters from the PRB are Na-HCO3 type waters and contain relatively low concentrations of trace metals (Rice and others; 2000). However, some of the water samples collected from the basin exhibit low to moderate total dissolved solid concentrations (370-1,940 mg/L) and a relatively high sodium adsorption ratio (SAR=5.7-32). Direct discharge of these waters to the surface has the potential to damage soils and ecosystems. Additionally, infiltration of CBM waters have been shown to leach pre-existing salts from the unsaturated zone, and in some cases lead to high salinity plumes in shallow groundwater.
One method for using CBM produced water is the irrigation of crops via subsurface drip irrigation (fig. 2). However, few data exist which examine potential impacts from this technology. To better understand impacts of salt and water derived from CBM produced waters on a SDI system, the USGS and colleagues are investigating through application of geochemical and geophysical tools. Additionally, because CBM produced waters are derived from a coal, an organic-rich substance, they often contain elevated levels of organic compounds. Organic compounds are indicative of energy sources potentially available for biological organisms to potentially generate additional CBM, through biogenic processes. Alternately, some of these compounds are toxicants and may present environmental concerns. Therefore further work is being conducted to better understand the behavior and distribution of organic compounds in CBM produced waters.
Rice, C.A. and Nuccio, V., 2000, Water Produced with Coalbed Methane: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet FS-156-00.
Rice, C.A., Ellis, M.S., and Bullock, J.H., Jr., 2000, Water co-produced with coalbed methane in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming: preliminary compositional data: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-372, 20 p.
Considerable work has been done to characterize the inorganic, major element chemistry of produced waters from western basins of the United States, but equivalent data for the Appalachian Basin are scarce, despite significant oil and gas production. Across the Appalachian Basin, salinities of produced waters range from fresh to more than 350,000 mg/L TDS... [+]
total dissolved solids; sea water is ~35,000 mg/L TDS). Initially, data from a variety of sources, including state and federal agencies, and possibly private sources, is being surveyed to compile basic information on the natural components of the deep groundwater. This information should be useful in advance planning for the disposal or possible recycling of produced formation water and flowback water. This information should be useful in advance planning for the disposal or possible recycling of produced formation water and flowback water.
A primary source of produced water geochemistry is a database compiled by Breit (2002) for localities throughout the United States, including 90 samples from the Appalachian Basin (fig. 1). The database reports the major cations and anions (i.e., Na, Ca, K, Mg, Cl, HCO3, and SO4) as well as mass and charge balance, pH, and total dissolved solids (TDS). The salinities of the Appalachian Basin produced waters compiled by Breit (2002) have a median of 246,000 mg/L TDS (fig. 2), markedly higher than for produced waters from almost all other oil and gas producing regions of the United States. The Rocky Mountain and Colorado Plateau regions, for example, have a median produced water salinity of 9000 mg/L TDS. The Appalachian Basin samples are predominantly Na-Cl-type waters; Ca is significant, but secondary to Na both in molality and equivalence. Concentrations of Mg, K, SO4 and HCO3, are minor to insignificant (fig. 3).
The waters in a given reservoir are most commonly a mix of fluids from multiple horizons that have migrated varying distances through the basin over geologic time. In some cases however, reservoir fluid represent connate water, or the fluid originally trapped during deposition of the reservoir strata. The Appalachian Basin samples of Breit (2002) were obtained from reservoirs of Pennsylvanian through Cambrian age, with a majority from Silurian and Devonian reservoirs (fig. 4). Overall, these samples are not sufficiently evenly distributed throughout the stratigraphic section to permit conclusions as to reservoir age vs. salinity.
The USGS is investigating additional sources of data beyond the database of Breit (2002) in order to address the following long term objectives:
New technologies have expanded domestic oil and gas production to include low-permeability formations once considered to be inaccessible, including the Bakken Formation in northern Montana and North Dakota, the Barnett Shale in Texas, and the Marcellus Shale in the Appalachian states (fig. 1). Hydrocarbon production from these formations requires considerable quantities of fresh water (surface and/or groundwater) to... [+]
increase fluid conductivity of the reservoir unit through hydraulic fracturing (commonly called “fracing”). Fracing fluids must be removed prior to resource extraction. These returned fracing fluids, known as flowback water, generally contains salts and minerals from the formation in addition to the additives used to increase fracing efficiency. The large volumes of water involved in these practices (generally 1-5 million gallons per frac job) have already led to supply and disposal problems in some areas. To address such issues and to help stakeholders prepare appropriately, the USGS is developing water-budget methods for uses associated with oil and gas production. Established USGS energy assessments provide estimates of technically recoverable resources. These results will be extended to project the volume of water needed for hydrocarbon production.
The Williston Basin in Montana and North Dakota (fig. 2) is the area of our initial focus because of (1) the large quantity of oil present in the Bakken Formation, and (2) the potential for impacts on the Prairie Pothole wetlands that host large numbers of migrating waterfowl. Current, rapidly escalating production of Bakken Formation oil a million or more gallons of fresh water per well for fracing. Historic and ongoing conventional oil production from other Williston Basin formations has resulted in large volumes of highly saline produced waters; in the past, some of these waters escaped into shallow aquifers and have impacted wetlands. USGS scientists are estimating the quantities of water (fracing and produced) that would be involved in a range of future hydrocarbon production scenarios and comparing these quantities with estimated total water budgets for the region.
by Madalyn S. Blondes1, Kathleen D. Gans2, James J. Thordsen2, Mark E. Reidy1, Burt Thomas2, Mark A. Engle1,3, Yousif K. Kharaka2, Elizabeth L. Rowan1
1U.S. Geological Survey, Eastern Energy Resources Science Center, Reston, VA, USA
2U.S. Geological Survey, National Research Program, Menlo Park, CA, USA
3Dept. of Geological Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX, USA
For questions, comments, or to submit new data, please contact Madalyn S. Blondes, email: firstname.lastname@example.org, telephone: (703) 648-6509
Disclaimer: The data you have secured from the U.S. Geological Survey National Produced Waters Geochemical Database v2.1 are provisional and subject to revision. The data are released on the condition that neither the USGS nor the United States Government may be held liable for any damages resulting from its authorized or unauthorized use.
During hydrocarbon exploration and extraction, water is typically co-produced from the same subsurface geologic formations. Understanding the composition of these produced waters is important to help investigate the regional hydrogeology, the source of the water and hydrocarbons, the necessary water treatment and disposal plans, potential economic benefits of commodities in the fluids, and the safety of potential sources of drinking or agricultural water. Additionally, during geothermal development or exploration, other deep formation waters are brought to the surface and may be sampled. This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Produced Waters Geochemical Database, which contains geochemical and other information for produced waters and other deep formation waters of the United States, is a provisional, updated version of the 2002 USGS Produced Waters Database. In addition to the major element data presented in the original, the new database contains trace elements, isotopes, and time-series data, as well as nearly 100,000 new samples with greater spatial coverage and from both conventional and unconventional well types, including geothermal. The database is a compilation of 25 individual databases, publications, or reports. The database was created in a manner to facilitate addition of new data and fix any compilation errors, and is expected to be updated with new data as provided and needed.
U.S. Map showing example coverage locations of the updated USGS National Produced Waters Geochemical Database. Launch Map Viewer
Complete List of Provisional National Produced Waters Geochemical Database Materials:
Why some Public-Supply Wells are More Vulnerable to Contamination Than Others
USGS Podcast (Episode 120)
See Podcast Transcript
Contaminants in 20 Percent of U.S. Private Wells
USGS Podcast (Episode 90)
A GIS-based vulnerability assessment of brine contamination to aquatic resources from oil and gas development in eastern Sheridan County, Montana
Brine Contamination to Prarie Potholes from Energy Development in the Williston Basin
Examination of brine contamination risk to aquatic resources from petroleum development in the Williston Basin
Energy Resources Program - Environmental Effects
Energy Resources Program - Hydraulic Fracturing
USGS Health and Environment Fact Sheets
USGS National Water Information System: Web Interface
USGS Public Health Website
U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) Report - Information on the Quantity, Quality, and Management of Water Produced during Oil and Gas Production: Report Number GAO-12-156
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Journal Article - The chronic toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Journal Article - Acute toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters, to 13 aquatic species as defined in the laboratory
"Produced Water" (Wikipedia)
Page Last Modified: Thursday, June 18, 2015