Energy Resources Program
Wednesday, July 19, 2017
Monday, July 17, 2017
The U.S. Geological Survey has evaluated three methods for estimating how much oil and gas could be produced by injecting carbon dioxide (CO2) into petroleum reservoirs.
Wednesday, January 18, 2017
Wednesday, October 19, 2016
Wednesday, September 07, 2016
Outside Publication: Natural Resources Research
Carbon capture from stationary sources and geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) is an important option to include in strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. However, the potential costs of commercial-scale CO2 storage are not well constrained, stemming from the inherent uncertainty in storage resource estimates coupled with a lack of detailed estimates of the infrastructure needed to...
Monday, August 01, 2016
Wednesday, June 29, 2016
Geological sequestration (storage) of carbon dioxide (CO2), a greenhouse gas, is an available technology that injects and stores anthropogenic CO2 produced by various industries and electric generation facilities in porous and permeable subsurface rock units, thereby preventing the release of the CO2 into the atmosphere where it may contribute to global warming. Few large-scale CO2 geologic sequestration projects exist today and more research is needed to better understand the geologic controls on subsurface rock storage capacities, the geologic and environmental hazards, and economic feasibility associated with geologic storage of CO2.
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a long history of assessing national and global ground- and surface-water resources and geologically-based energy and mineral resources. In 2007, the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA, Public Law 110–140) authorized the USGS to conduct a national assessment of geologic storage resources for CO2. The results of the national assessment were published in 2013 (U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Resources Assessment Team, 2013). The EISA also requested the USGS to conduct an independent evaluation of the national technically recoverable hydrocarbon resources resulting from CO2 injection and storage (through CO2-enhanced oil recovery). The planned USGS assessment will build upon previous technical/economic evaluations conducted by industry, government and academic organizations; however the USGS assessments will be of the total technically recoverable hydrocarbon (oil) resources, and will not include a minimum economic cutoff. An economic analysis of CO2 storage resources and of the potential for recoverable hydrocarbons will inform policy decision makers outside of the USGS.
The Helium Stewardship Act of 2013 directed the USGS to cooperate with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the State geological surveys, to assess the availability of recoverable natural helium (He) and associated CO2 found in natural gas reservoirs in the United States. The project plans to work with these agencies to build the necessary databases needed to assess natural He and CO2 resources.
In January, 2016, the Secretary of the Interior tasked USGS with development of a publicly accessible database of the estimated carbon emissions associated with fossil fuels extracted from Federal lands and waters. The Carbon Sequestration-Geologic Research and Assessments project is responsible for development of databases and an estimate of the greenhouse gas emissions associated with fossil fuels produced from Federal lands and waters. This will result in an operational system, with annual updates based on data from USGS, other Department of Interior bureaus, the Environmental Protection Agency, and Department of Energy.
Research conducted by the project will build the framework needed to improve future assessments of the Nation’s geologic CO2 storage capacities as required by EISA. The project will continue interactions and collaborations with State and Federal agencies and international organizations in the area of geologic carbon sequestration. The project work will complement ongoing efforts in these other organizations, and will use their results in the planned research efforts. Project research results will be presented at scientific meetings and published.
During the course of the Carbon Sequestration – Geologic Research and Assessments project, the following seven research and assessment topics will be investigated. These topics are discussed in more detail in the research section of this web page:
USGS Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) Pertaining to "Carbon Sequestration"
Sean Brennan and Celeste Lohr
Associate Project Chiefs
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Research conducted by the Carbon Sequestration – Geologic Research and Assessments project will build on geologic models and regional assessment results developed during the national assessment of geologic storage resources (U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Resources Assessment Team, 2013). The project will conduct relevant research that focuses on improving the geologic and technical foundation and economic feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO2) subsurface storage in various geologic basins, rock types, and regions of the country. The project plans to evaluate the national technically recoverable hydrocarbon resources resulting from CO2 injection and storage through CO2-enhanced oil recovery and will study natural CO2 and helium reservoirs as analogues for anthropogenic CO2 storage. Environmental and geologic risks associated with CO2 subsurface storage will also be investigated and will include those associated with the geochemistry of produced groundwater and induced seismicity related to CO2 injection and storage. During the course of the Carbon Sequestration – Geologic Research and Assessments project, the following seven research and assessment topics will be investigated.
Geologic CO2 sequestration coupled with enhanced oil recovery (EOR) using CO2 in existing hydrocarbon reservoirs can increase the U.S. hydrocarbon recoverable resource volume. If anthropogenic CO2 is used in the EOR process, it can prevent the release of CO2 to the atmosphere, potentially limiting its contribution to global warming as a greenhouse gas. The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA, Public Law 110-140) of 2007 authorized the USGS to conduct a national assessment of geologic storage resources and to evaluate the national technically recoverable hydrocarbon resources resulting from CO2 injection and related storage (CO2-EOR). The USGS recently completed the national CO2 storage assessment (U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Resources Assessment Team, 2013); however, an evaluation of recoverable hydrocarbons (oil) related to CO2 injection was delayed to allow USGS time to build a comprehensive CO2-EOR database and to develop an assessment methodology to evaluate the recovery potential for oil related to CO2 injection. The planned USGS assessment will build upon previous technical/economic evaluations conducted by industry, government, and academic organizations; however, the USGS assessments will be of the total technically recoverable oil resources, and will not include a minimum economic cutoff. Previous assessments of CO2-EOR recoverable resources have included economic constraints and vary widely with some estimates of over 100 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil. The national resource of technically recoverable oil resulting from CO2 injection on a non-economic basis is unknown. The objective of this project is to conduct a national assessment of recoverable oil related to CO2 injection. The amount of CO2 stored (utilized) during the hydrocarbon recovery process will also be evaluated.
Although enhanced gas recovery (EGR) by CO2 gas injection into the reservoir is technically feasible, no commercial enhanced gas recovery projects exist today in conventional gas reservoirs. There could be some benefits of CO2 gas injection, such as additional natural gas recovery and condensate recovery, but this is not practical because of the high gas recovery factor, the costs of capture and transmission of CO2 to the gas fields, and additional infrastructure for CO2 separation and injection in the gas fields. Therefore, enhanced gas recovery using CO2 injection will not be part of the USGS national CO2-EOR assessment.
The following USGS reports and slide presentations summarize our approach to the development philosophy of assessment methodology and work progress:
USGS Factsheet: Development of an Assessment Methodology for Hydrocarbon Recovery Potential Using Carbon Dioxide and Associated Carbon Sequestration: Workshop Findings
Slideshow: Development Philosophy of an Assessment Methodology for Hydrocarbon Recovery Potential Using CO2–EOR Associated with Carbon Sequestration - By Mahendra Verma and Peter Warwick [Adobe Flash]
Slideshow: Enhanced Oil Recovery and CO2 Resource Studies at the U.S. Geological Survey - By P. D. Warwick and U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Resources Assessment Team [Adobe Flash]
Contact: Peter Warwick
The recently completed USGS assessment of the national CO2 storage potential (U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Resources Assessment Team, 2013) establishes a baseline of storage resources available in various basins of the United States. Because the assessment was completed at a rapid pace in order to meet the completion deadline required by the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA, Public Law 110-140) of 2007, more focused geological studies need to be conducted on reservoirs and seals in selected basins and storage assessment units (SAUs) with high potential for CO2 sequestration. Also, reevaluation of smaller basins not assessed during the initial assessment may be needed in some instances to better understand the character and distribution of the storage resources. Building upon previous investigations by the USGS and other organizations, the following questions represent some of the areas of research that will be addressed by this project:
1) What are the characteristics of the regional sealing units that overlie the SAUs with significant CO2 storage potential?
2) What are the regional pressure variations in each basin and SAU?
3) Are some areas of the SAU in over-pressured or under-pressured conditions?
4) At what time scales did these over- or under-pressures conditions develop – at hundreds, thousands, or millions of years?
5) Which SAUs also have high potential for enhanced hydrocarbon recovery using injected CO2?
Regional maps need to be developed for selected SAUs with high storage potential that show variation in thickness, porosity, permeability, groundwater salinity, and structural complexity. Also, project members will work to complete the CO2 storage basin geology Open-File Reports series (see Warwick and Corum, 2012), which was started during the previous Carbon Sequestration-Geologic project (2010-2013).
The objective of this research effort is to reevaluate selected regions of the country and selected SAUs to better define the distribution of the geologic storage resources for anthropogenic CO2. Since reservoir pressure directly impacts CO2 storage potential, regional models need to be developed to help understand the controls on over- and under-pressure development in basins. Geochemical models are needed to better understand the character of ground water and the subsurface geochemical environments in selected SAUs. These studies are important to assess the feasibility and potential environmental impacts of geologic CO2 storage. As the opportunities develop, project members, in coordination with the USGS Produced Waters project, may also work cooperatively with other organizations to better characterize the local and regional geologic and groundwater controls on potential CO2 storage.
Slideshow: CO2 Fluid Flow Modeling to Derive... the Time Scales of Lateral Fluid Migration - By Lauri Burke [Adobe Flash]
The 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA, Public Law 110–140) authorized the USGS to conduct a national assessment of geologic storage resources for CO2. The results of the national assessment were published in 2013 (U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Resources Assessment Team, 2013). The EISA also directed the USGS to evaluate the unique conditions resulting from long-term storage of CO2 in geologic reservoirs, and to estimate the potential volumes of recoverable hydrocarbons by injection and storage of anthropogenic CO2. In addition, the Helium Stewardship Act of 2013 (HSA, Public Law 113-40) directed USGS, to work with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and State geological surveys, to produce a national assessment of helium (He) resources and associated naturally occurring CO2. Naturally occurring He is used in many industrial and research applications and natural CO2 is primarily used in enhanced oil recovery operations. Although not part of the petroleum system, He and CO2 often occur in low-BTU (< 950 British thermal units) natural gas reservoirs. Hydrogen sulfide and nitrogen are other impurities often associated with low-BTU natural gas. To determine the need for anthropogenic CO2 for EOR operations, a better understanding of the availability and resource distribution of naturally occurring CO2 is needed. Likely, a mix of CO2 from both anthropogenic and natural sources will be used to recover remaining hydrocarbons.
To address these Congressional requests, project members will build upon previous studies of natural CO2/He reservoirs and conduct detailed studies of selected reservoirs (primarily those containing greater than 10 percent CO2) to determine the long-term geologic and geochemical effects of natural CO2 storage and to obtain new geochemical isotopic data that can be used to better assess CO2/He resources. The information obtained from these studies can be used to help predict the geologic and environmental effects of anthropogenic CO2 storage in geologic reservoirs and will help to build the geochemical database needed to conduct a national assessment of natural CO2 and He resources. These studies include: 1) characterization of natural CO2/He gas and reservoir rocks by geochemical and isotopic analyses to help determine the origin (mantle or crustal), migration pathways, and ultimate fate of the natural CO2/He; 2) characterization of formation water associated with natural CO2/He reservoirs; 3) geologic characterization of the CO2 reservoir rocks to determine the long-term effects of natural CO2 storage and the occurrence of CO2 leaks from the reservoir; and 4) working with BLM and the State Geological Surveys to build a national geochemical database that can be used to assess CO2/He occurrence in U.S. natural gas reservoirs.
In cooperation with BLM, project members will use existing and new geochemical and geologic data to build the geologic databases and models needed to evaluate the distribution of discovered natural He resources in the United States. An evaluation of the undisclosed CO2/He resources occurring in natural gas reservoirs may follow in later years of the project, however modifications of USGS National Oil and Gas Assessment methodology may be required.
Natural CO2 Study Regions
Contact: Marc Buursink, Email: email@example.com
Northern Rocky Mountains
Contact: Matt Merrill, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Southern Rocky Mountains
Contact: Bill Craddock, Email: email@example.com
Southwestern Permian Basin
Contact: Peter Warwick, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Jackson Dome, Mississippi
Contact: Tina Roberts-Ashby, Email: email@example.com
Resource assessments require an economic analysis of the results to help policy makers and other assessment users better understand the potential development of the resource under various economic conditions. Because geologic carbon sequestration is relatively new, few studies have been conducted on the economic viability of wide-spread implementation of the technology. Also, previous economic assessments of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) using CO2 have focused on the economics of the recoverable hydrocarbons and have not included an assessment of the economic viability of CO2 sequestration associated with the EOR processes. The focus of this research will be to 1) develop and apply the economic models to evaluate: the results of the 2013 USGS national assessment of geologic carbon dioxide storage resources; 2) develop economic models to characterize joint CO2-EOR and storage projects; and 3) apply economic models to assess economic potential for incremental oil recovery in oil fields assessed by geologists.
In order to develop the economic implications of the USGS national assessment results for CO2 storage resources, an economic model of representative storage projects must be devised that incorporates geologic data similar to data applied in the national storage assessment. In addition costs must be estimated for various activities, including site evaluation, CO2 injection, storage management, and other economic parameters that may influence the viability of a particular CO2 storage project. Project staff will collect the information required to apply the economic models to estimate costs and economic consequences of risks associated with CO2 storage. In addition, for an economic analysis of CO2-EOR and associated carbon sequestration, project staff will collect the data needed to utilize published and constructed type curves to predict injection and production well performance. Economic models related to the CO2 storage in joint CO2-EOR projects and for sequestration in buoyant structures and saline aquifers will be built in coordination with the Economics Dimensions of Energy Resources, Assessments and Future Supply project. The CO2-EOR economic model developed by USGS ERP Economics project will be used by this project to evaluate potential economic oil for fields assessed by project geologists.
Contact: Philip Freeman
The results of USGS National CO2 assessment provide estimates of the potential subsurface storage volumes in existing pore space of sandstones, limestones, or dolostones through buoyant or residual trapping mechanisms (U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Resources Assessment Team, 2013). However, other rock types have the potential to store CO2 through different mechanisms, including CO2 mineralization in mafic basalts and ultramafic rocks, and CO2 sorption onto organic-rich shales and coals.
Mafic or ultramafic storage, in which CO2 reacts in these rocks to form stable carbonates, eliminates much of the risk of pumping CO2 gas into the subsurface and long term monitoring the fluid's effect on nearby aquifers or reservoirs. Recently published pilot studies on CO2 injection into basalt corroborate experimental results and show rapid, long-term mineralization. These kinds of studies show what parameters are likely important to assess how much CO2 can be stored through mineralization (e.g. Mg concentration of the rock, mineralogy, surface area of reaction, temperature, and CO2 phase). To better understand the potential for CO2 storage through mineralization in basalt and ultramafic reservoirs, this task has two main objectives. First, the current state of experimental research, modeling, and pilot projects will be evaluated, with a specific focus on the results that would inform storage assessments (e.g. experiments that determine reaction rates for specific minerals under natural conditions). The second objective is a scoping project to characterize the natural variability of important storage parameters in basalt or ultramafic rocks to better understand CO2 storage potential in these reservoirs. Though ultramafic rocks have been evaluated for CO2 storage potential broadly across the U.S., and in specific local sites, the ultramafic rocks of the Late Proterozoic – Early Cambrian Piney Branch Complex and the blocks of serpentinite within the Peters Creek Schist, both local to the USGS in Northern Virginia, have not been studied for this purpose. Samples will be obtained from a number of sites from these two ultramafic bodies and will be analyzed for whole rock chemistry, mineralogy, and other physical parameters. These parameters will be used to develop preliminary CO2 storage estimates, and perhaps more importantly, to understand how natural rock variability in these highly variable ultramafic bodies can affect storage potential.
In recent years, the United States has expanded the use of technologies that involve injection (and in some cases associated production) of fluid at depth to meet future energy needs, limit emissions of greenhouse gases and safely dispose of wastewater. To varying degrees, the injection and production practices employed in these technologies have the potential to introduce significant seismic hazards (see report by the National Research Council, 2012; “Induced seismicity potential in energy technologies”). The significance of induced seismicity associated with wastewater disposal from natural gas production is highlighted by the 2008 (M3.3) and 2009 earthquake sequence near the Dallas-Fort Worth airport and by the 2011 seismicity induced by the deep injection of wastewater near Guy, Arkansas (M4.7) and Youngstown, Ohio (M4.0). Likewise, there is a potential seismic hazard associated with geologic carbon sequestration projects, which could involve injection of vast quantities of supercritical CO2 into sedimentary basins located in or near major urban centers of the eastern and central United States (National Research Council, 2012).
As a national science agency, the USGS is responsible for assessing hazard from earthquakes throughout the United States. The USGS studies induced seismicity across the spectrum of energy issues: carbon sequestration, geothermal energy and conventional and unconventional oil and gas. In the central and eastern United States, earthquakes induced by fluid injection activities contribute significantly to the total seismic hazard, partly because the modern boom in oil and gas production is taking place in this vast region and because the background level of seismicity is relatively low in this geologically stable part of country. This project, in support with the USGS Earthquake Hazards Program, is installing and operating seismic networks around key carbon sequestration pilot projects to study the potential for induced seismicity related to CO2 storage in regionally extensive sedimentary formations.
In Decatur, IL, where Archer Daniels Midland (ADM) operates a corn-ethanol fermentation facility for which the main byproduct is CO2, we installed and operate a seismic network to assess the seismic hazard associated with CO2 sequestration. The Illinois Basin Decatur Project (IBDP), whose major Partners are the Department of Energy (DOE), the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS), ADM and Schlumberger Carbon Services, injected large quantities of CO2 into the lower Mt. Simon Sandstone, a basal brine reservoir in the Illinois Basin at a depth of 2.1 km. The first phase of this project, which began in November 2011 and concluded in November 2014, injected 1000 metric tons (tons)/day of CO2. The second phase, the Illinois Carbon Capture and Sequestration (ICCS) project, lead by Archer Daniels Midland, will entail injection in a new well about 1 km north of the current injection well at a rate of 3000 tons/day (1.1. million tons/year) over a 5-year period. The CCS demonstration project is the ideal natural laboratory for better understanding the seismic hazards that may be associated with geologic CO2 sequestration.
Contact: Ole Kaven
Atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gas associated with the production and use of fossil fuels is of growing public and government concern because of its contribution to on-going climate change. The goal of this research is to estimate the annual net greenhouse gas emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) associated with fossil fuel production from Federal lands and waters. Data from several U.S. Government agencies will be required. The primary agencies include the Department of Interior Office of Natural Resources Revenue (ONRR), Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has agreed to assist the USGS in applying the EPA greenhouse gas inventory methods to estimate the annual emissions from fossil fuels extracted from Federal lands. The USGS Biologic Sequestration Project will estimate the amount of carbon sequestered annually on Federal lands, and this amount will be subtracted from the annual gross emissions to obtain the net emissions related to fossil fuel extraction on Federal lands. This task plans to produce an annual report of estimated greenhouse gas emissions associated with fossil fuel production from Federal lands and waters. The first planned report will cover the years 2005 to 2014. Subsequent annual reports will provide updates for the next calendar year based on the availability of annual production data from ONRR.
DOI Factsheet: Modernizing the Federal Coal Program
Slideshow: Status Report: Estimating greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels produced from Federal lands
A list of downloadable Geologic CO2 Sequestration spatial data and associated geologic reports is available here.
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Visit our interactive web map that includes investigated basins, assessed areas, stratigraphic columns, and well density information.
Sean T. Brennan1, Joseph A. East1, Kristin O. Dennen1, Hossein Jahediesfanjani2, Brian Varela3
1U.S. Geological Survey, 12201 Sunrise Valley Dr., Reston, VA 20192; 2Lynxnet, 13873 Park Center Rd., Suite 400N, Herndon, VA 20171; 3U.S. Geological Survey, Kipling St & 6th Street, Denver, CO 80226
In 2013, the Helium Stewardship Act (Public Law 113–40; U.S. Congress, 2013) directed the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to create an accounting of the geological helium resources of the United States. The initial task in this endeavor has been to collect all known analyses of subsurface helium gas within the contiguous United States and Alaska.
The two main sources of data employed in this assessment process are from the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). BLM data come from thousands of gas samples analyzed for the Federal Helium Program, which originally began in 1925 under the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM). These analyses were reported in several publications (Moore and Sigler, 1987; Hamak and Gage, 1992; Hamak and Sigler, 1991, 1993; Sigler, 1994; Hamak and Driskill, 1996; Gage and Driskill, 1998, 2003, 2005; Driskill, 2008), and additional unpublished data reside in an internal BLM database. A publically available database that contains much of the data from USBM, BLM, and USGS analyses (U.S. Geological Survey, 2015).
The data include all gas analyses from the BLM and USGS databases with measured values of helium concentrations. Helium values of less than 0.005 mol% are listed as “TRACE”, and those greater than 0.005 mol% were rounded up to 0.01 mol%. We report all helium recognized in gas compositions, even though there is a limit on economically recoverable helium. A minimum helium concentration of 0.3 mole percent (mol%) is needed for the commercial separation of helium from marketable natural gas (National Research Council, 2010). However, helium concentrations as low as 0.04 can be economic if gas is chilled and purified to meet specifications as liquefied natural gas (National Research Council, 2010).
It is important to note that there might be several gas samples from different wells in a given reservoir or formation, hence the concentration values reported for each well sample do not necessarily represent the concentration of helium in the entire reservoir.
The analytical data is supported with identifying information. These include the American Petroleum Institute (API) number, a unique 10 digit identifier for each well, the first two numbers indicate the state, the next three indicate the county, and the last five numbers are a unique code for that well. Each entry also contains the latitude and longitude of the well, and the names of the gas producing formation and field. The sample depth in feet and the date that the sample was collected are listed for each well. The reported date is in mm/dd/yyyy format. Wherever “00” is present in the sample date, this indicates that the sampling day and or month were not listed in the source publications. Where data are absent, or listed as “not given”, “UNK” was entered into the field to indicate that information is unknown.
You must read and agree to the following limitations of the data prior to downloading:
Disclaimer for Provisional Data
The data you have secured are provisional and subject to revision. The data are released on the condition that neither the USGS nor the United States Government may be held liable for any damages resulting from its authorized or unauthorized use.
Although the data have been processed on the computer system at the U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of the Interior, no warranty, expressed or implied, is made by the Geological Survey regarding the utility of the data on any other system, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty. No responsibility is assumed by the U.S. Geological Survey in the use of these data.
By downloading, you are aware of these limitation to data use and data quality:
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Driskill, D.L, 2008, Analyses of natural gases, 2005–2007: Bureau of Land Management, Technical Note 427, p., accessed May 17, 2016.
Gage, B.D., and Driskill, D.L., 1998, Analyses of Natural Gases, 1996–1997: Bureau of Land Management, Technical Note 404, 71 p., accessed May 17, 2016.
Gage, B.D., and Driskill, D.L., 2003, Analyses of Natural Gases, 1998–2001: Bureau of Land Management, Technical Note 412, 173 p., accessed May 17, 2016.
Gage, B.D., and Driskill, D.L. , 2005, Analyses of Natural Gases, 2002–2004: Bureau of Land Management, Technical Note 418, 243 p., accessed May 17, 2016.
Hamak, J.E., and Driskill, D.L., 1996, Analyses of Natural Gases, 1994–1995: U.S. Bureau of Land Management, Technical Note 399, 70 p., accessed May 17, 2016.
Hamak, J.E., and Gage, B.D., 1992, Analyses of Natural Gases, 1991: U.S. Bureau of Mines, Information Circular 9318, 97 p.
Hamak, J.E., and Sigler, S.M., 1991, Analyses of Natural Gases, 1986–1990: U.S. Bureau of Mines, Information Circular 9301, 315 p.
Hamak, J.E., and Sigler, S.M., 1993, Analyses of Natural Gases, 1992: U.S. Bureau of Mines, Information Circular 9356, 62 p.
Moore, B.J., and Sigler, S.M., 1987, Analyses of Natural Gases, 1917–1985: U.S. Bureau of Mines, Information Circular 9129, 1197 p.
National Research Council. 2010, Selling the Nation's Helium Reserve: Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press, 156 p.
Sigler, S.M., 1994, Analyses of Natural Gases, 1993: U.S. Bureau of Mines, Information Circular 9400, 58 p.
U.S. Congress, 2013, Helium Stewardship Act of 2013—Public Law 110–40: U.S. Government Printing Office, 15 p., accessed May 17, 2016.
U. S. Geological Survey, 2015, Geochemistry Database: U.S. Geological Survey, Provisional Database, accessed May 17, 2016.
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The Potential Effects of Elevated CO2 and Climate Change on Coastal Wetlands
Ocean Acidification: Research on Top of the World
USGS Public Lecture Series: Climate Change 101
USGS Public Lecture Series: Watching Nature's Clock: A Citizen-Scientist Effort to Track Seasonal Signs of Climate Change
USGS Public Lecture Series: Baked Alaska--What's Happening to the Glaciers in Alaska?
Can We Move Carbon from the Atmosphere and into Rocks?
USGS Podcast (Episode 89)
See Podcast Transcript
Public Lecture Sneak Peek: Soils, Carbon, and the Global exCHANGE
USGS Podcast (Episode 252)
Sand Dunes on the Loose Due to Climate Change
USGS Podcast (Episode 268)
See Podcast Transcript
New Climate Change Forecasts
USGS Podcast (Episode 283)
USGS Carbon Sequestration Website
National Assessment of Ecosystem Carbon Sequestration and Greenhouse Gas Fluxes
USGS Earthquake Hazards Program - "Induced Earthquakes"
Select Energy Resources Program CO2 Publications
U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Related Websites:
U.S. DOE Geologic Sequestration Research
Regional Partnerships Involved in Carbon Sequestration Research:
West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WestCarb)
Southwest Regional Partnership for Carbon Sequestration
Big Sky Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership
Plains CO2 Reduction Partnership
Midwest (Illinois Basin) Geologic Sequestration Consortium
Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership
Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership
State Geologic Survey Websites:
Check on geologic CO2 sequestration activities in your state. Visit the Association of American State Geologists website
Gulf Coast Carbon Center, The Bureau of Economic Geology
International Energy Agency (IEA) Websites:
IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme (IEAGHG)
IEA Carbon Capture and Storage
Other International Websites:
CO2 Capture Project
CO2CRC (Cooperative Research Centre for Greenhouse Gas technologies)
MIT Laboratory for Energy and the Environment Carbon Sequestration Initative
Geologic CO2 Storage, The University of Texas at Austin
Global Climate and Energy Project (GCEP), Stanford University
Carbon Mitigation Initiative (CMI), Princeton University
IRIS Webinar - "Induced/Triggered Earthquakes: Examples from Texas"
Carbon Sequestration Conference
A Strategy for Low Cost Development of Incremental Oil in Legacy Reservoirs (OnePetro)
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